EGGS

and

OLD NOTEBOOKS

Dr.Elio CORTI   Ph.D. & fancier - Eduardo CANI fancier
Strada Doglia San Zeno 12 - 15048 VALENZA  AL - Italy

Translated by help of William PLANT
54 Bonar Street - MAITLAND - NSW 2320 - Australia

Do we keep a flavour of antiquity or do we introduce the modern ideas into the fancy? It is not only a question of taste, but of necessity.

If we wish to place eggs in an incubator before they lose their viability for hatching, we must observe particular times: not before 3 days and not after 8-10 days from being laid.

To fill an incubator of 200-250 places at one time, we need many hens. Otherwise we often are obliged to overtake the time for good hatchability. In practice it happens that we should put the eggs in the incubator weekly, therefore this will ensure all eggs are in good hatchable condition.

You may disagree saying that a broody hen may resolve the problem, but a further problem is to have a broody hen available when required. Without doubt we agree that the percentage of hatchability is higher with a broody hen than with an incubator and that the days the nature gives us between the laying and the beginning of the broodyness are different if the mother is a hen or if the mother is an incubator.

If we have few hens and consequently few eggs every day, to resolve the problem that the eggs for an incubator do not become stale and not lose the water inside, we have a solution: an hatching box.

The hatching in an incubator is quite all right if all eggs have been set at same time. It is incorrect to hatch eggs in an incubator in conjunction with eggs they have being set in incubator at different times: in an hatching box the relative humidity should be about 67-77%, otherwise during the incubation may be only 35-45% maximum.

In practice in the hatching box the highest humidity is required for 4 days: from the 19th day to 22nd day to wait for all chickens to hatch. There are chickens that hatch early (for example Japanese bantam) and other breeds hatch later (for example thicker shelled eggs). The Japanese Bantams need to dry and can be removed after 24 hours into a brooder, leaving the other eggs to hatch in hatching box.

One purpose of the hatching box is to make room for more eggs to be set in the incubator and the hatching box is independent of the incubator and does not require a fan. However the temperature in the hatching box needs to be thermostatically controlled and should run at 2įC degrees higher than the incubator.

It is not good practice to have different types of eggs (for example duck, turkey, hen etc.) in incubator, but sometimes in practice it is necessary to do so by fanciers with small number of reproductive birds of different breeds.

Now, what do we do in practice supposing that we have an hatching box? If the first use of the year of the incubator  is eight eggs, the next 10 eggs, and after we set in incubator other seven eggs and so on, and we make entries in a notebook or in a calendar the dates of setting eggs and the date of when to transfer to hatching box, this is can become confusing if you are dealing with eggs from different species. Each species has different length of time of incubation and when we remove the eggs of geese from incubator to put in the hatching box, the hatching box may be occupied by henís eggs hatching.

The hatching box is closed for the cycle of hatching. It isnít as an oven is used for cooking pizzas which is open. It is as an oven for cooking bread which is filled at one time and is closed. However the hatching box does have adjustable vents to ensure air flow through box and control humidity.

It is a very difficult problem to calculate when the hatching box is clear for next hatch. The computer may resolve this problem in an excellent manner. The computer is designed to calculate this type of informations. To compute itís to calculate!

From these needs it was born in my mind and in the mind of my collaborator, Eduardo Cani, the idea to have available a program, a software, to substitute calendars or notebooks. The used computerís language is that of a relational database: dBase IV version 1.5. We have stated that for an hatching cycle the hatching box is occupied during four days, and in these four days you does not disturb the eggs.

We now hypothesise that we have introduced in incubator 15 eggs of hen fist march and that this is the first hatch of the year. Logically the hatching box is available in the right moment, i.e. after 19 days from the beginning of the incubation. The computer will accept the date of the first of march.

If two of march we collect other 10 eggs and we will begin the incubation the 4th of march after three days of setting of eggs, the computer answers: not! The computer itself will propose the right date: 5th of march.

Up to this point itís very simple, but further on it may prove a little more complicated when we have a mixture of eggs for the incubator. In this case the computerís program will be over assistance.

The title of program I have written is: Eggs. Based on exposed presuppositions, it is divided up into three sections:

Eggs under broody hen

Eggs in incubator

Health treatments

EGGS UNDER BROODY HEN

INPUT OF THE EGGS

The date of the day is free. We should input the quantity, the species, and identify the broody hen with a name or with a number. In the program are inclosed the hatching days for:

Hen - 21

Turkey - 28

Duck - 28

Muskovy - 32

Goose - 29

Mallard Duck - 27

Quail - 16

Guinea Fowl - 27

Pheasant - 26

Partridge - 23

Peacock - 28

UPDATE

All previous data may be modified. Also the date of the hatching start may be modified. This fact is impossible in the section of the incubator, where the start time date is fixed in the moment of the input.

DELETION

Each Breeder is aware that sometime the broody hens are rebellious or crazy, and that sometime the broody hens fall ill or even die before the chickens hatch.

BIRTH

Is divided in the following sections:

Ć Input of the hatches: in this moment is also calculated the hatchís percentage

ć Calculations:

ō     monthly: gives and prints the list of the broody hens, the amount of the incubated eggs, the hatches, the hatchís percentage in relation to each broody hen

ō     annual: as above

ō     graphic representations: itís possible to obtain an annual graphic regarding each species, with data subdivided monthly

Į  in bars

Į  in line

é Report:

Prints a list of data between two chosen dates. The available data are the same as listed in monthly calculations.

Ź Agenda:

With this printed notebook itís possible to have a clear diary to control the broody hens.

EGGS IN INCUBATOR

INPUT OF THE EGGS

We may tell to the computer of which species they are, the amount and when we will start the incubation. As it happens for the broody hens, are previewed different times of hatch. If you choose a wrong day (in regard of the hatching box to be clear) the computer will suggest the correct day.

UPDATE

We may update only the quantity of the eggs, but not the start nor the species.

DELETION

Useful if we need to break off the hatch because of protracted lack of electricity or because we have decided give way to another species.

BIRTH

As for the broody hen section: input - calculations - report.

AGENDA

This notebook obviously contains much details, because an incubator needs special jobs:

ō     candling: 8th and 12th day from the start of hatching

ō     daily moistening of the eggs of the webbed-feet species beginning from the 15th day of incubation

ō     date when the eggs leave the incubator to reach the hatching box

HEALTH TREATMENTS

The webbed-feet species are not inclosed because only seldom give healthís problems. Instead for fowls, turkeys and peacocks it is better that they are vaccinated.

Our pen lay in the north west of Italy and each geographical site has different problems. According with Dr.Elio MEINI, Veterinary Physician of the Intervet (Milano), we have adopted the following scheme related to the hatchís day:

ō   1st day: Marekís disease

ō   8th day: infectious bronchitis

ō   14th day: Newcastle and Gumboro diseases

ō   30th day: Newcastle and Gumboro diseases

ō   40th day: infectious laringotracheitis, pox, encephalomyelitis

ō   60th day: infectious bronchitis

ō   between 90th and 120th day: Newcastle disease

The dates of these vaccinations are automatically established by the computer when we input the real date of Marekís disease vaccination. For our pen and for many Fanciers this date doesnít corresponds to the day after hatching date because we need the Veterinary prescription and this fact requires too many time. We are Fanciers and the pen is not our profession and we have only the time to look after our fowls daily.

It is possible to delay the Marekís disease vaccination until the 21st day from hatch and so, both the hatched chickens under broody hen and the incubatorís chickens are gathered in an unique family which has in common the real date of Marekís vaccination. So, the chickens hatched first of march are vaccinated together with the chickens hatched within 20th of march. It happens as at this date all are one day old.

Now we input the real date of Marekís vaccination: 21st march. The chickens, scattered with different hatchís days, are congregated under the same date and are levelled, and from this date they go all together towards following vaccinations. This solution isnít the perfection, but we need make a virtue of necessity.

Try to believe!

 

Agenda of the incubator - March 1992

1-3-92

Candle gooseís eggs incubated beginning at 18-2-92

Moisten duckís eggs incubated beginning at 14-2-92

2-3-92

Moisten duckís eggs incubated beginning at 14-2-92

3-3-92

Moisten duckís eggs incubated beginning at 14-2-92

4-3-92

Remove turkeyís eggs incubated beginning at 7-2-92

Remove henís eggs incubated beginning 14-2-92

Moisten duckís eggs incubated beginning at 14-2-92

Moisten gooseís eggs incubated beginning at 18-2-92

5-3-92

Moisten duckís eggs incubated beginning at 14-2-92

Moisten gooseís eggs incubated beginning at 18-2-92

6-3-92

Moisten duckís eggs incubated beginning at 14-2-92

Moisten gooseís eggs incubated beginning at 18-2-92

7-3-92

Candle gooseís eggs incubated beginning at 28-2-92

Moisten duckís eggs incubated beginning at 14-2-92

Moisten gooseís eggs incubated beginning at 18-2-92

8-3-92

Moisten duckís eggs incubated beginning at 14-2-92

Moisten gooseís eggs incubated beginning at 18-2-92

9-3-92

Moisten duckís eggs incubated beginning at 14-2-92

Moisten gooseís eggs incubated beginning at 18-2-92

10-3-92

Candle henís eggs incubated beginning at 2-3-92

Moisten duckís eggs incubated beginning at 14-2-92

Moisten gooseís eggs incubated beginning at 18-2-92

11-3-92

Remove turkeyís eggs incubated beginning at 14-2-92

Remove duckís eggs incubated beginning at 14-2-92

Candle gooseís eggs incubated beginning at 28-2-92

Moisten gooseís eggs incubated beginning at 18-2-92

 

Agenda of the broody hens - May 1992

5-5-92

Look out henís eggs incubating beginning at 14-4-92 - black Silky

Look out henís eggs incubating beginning at 14-4-92 - wheat Japanese

9-5-92

Look out the henís eggs incubating beginning at 18-4-92 - black bantam NEG

13-5-92

Look out the duckís eggs incubating beginning at 15-4-92 - Mandarin duck

15-5-92

Look out the gooseís eggs incubating beginning at 16-4-92 - turkey hen

21-5-92

Look out the gooseís eggs incubating beginning at 22-4-92 - Toulouse goose

Look out the quailís eggs incubating beginning at 5-5-92 - incubator

29-5-92

Look out the pheasantís eggs incubating beginning at 3-5-92 - bantam silver Phoenix

31-5-92

Look out the henís eggs incubating beginning at 10-5-92 - Bankiva

Note: the quailís eggs incubated and hatched in incubator without using the incubatorís section of the software.

 

Agenda of health treatments - June 1994

1-6-94

2nd Izovermina 1 g/l if hot - 2 g/l if cool - Only to the animals living on the ground.

2-6-94

Only Newcastleís disease 3rd dose - Henís chickens hatched between 13-02-94 and 03-03-94

5-6-94

Infectious bronchitis 1st dose - Henís chickens hatched between 19-05-94 and 28-05-94

8-6-94

Infectious bronchitis 2nd dose - Henís chickens hatched between 25-03-94 and 07-04-94

9-6-94

Infectious laringotracheitis - Henís chickens hatched between 10-04-94 and 29-04-94

Pox and encephalomyelitis - Henís chickens hatched between 10-04-94 and 29-04-94

11-6-94

Newcastleís and Gumboroís diseases 1st dose - Henís chickens hatched between 19-05-94 al 28-05-94

12-6-96

Marekís disease - Henís chickens hatched 30-05-94 - incubated by white Silky beginning at 09-05-94

Marekís disease - Henís chickens hatched 01-06-94 - incubated by mottled Nagasaki beginning at 11-05-94

Marekís disease - Henís chickens hatched 01-06-94 - incubated in incubator beginning at 11-05-94

Marekís disease - Henís chickens hatched 03-06-94 - incubated by black ovenís Pekin beginning at 13-05-94

Marekís disease - Henís chickens hatched 06-06-94 - incubated by turkey hen beginning at 16-05-94

Marekís disease - Henís chickens hatched 07-06-94 - incubated by white Wyandottes beginning at 17-05-94

Marekís disease - Henís chickens hatched 07-06-94 - incubated by wild Silky beginning at 17-05-94

16-6-94

Newcastleís and Gumboroís diseases 2nd dose - Henís chickens hatched between 02-05-94 and 15-05-94

19-6-94

Marekís disease - Henís chickens hatched 11-06-94 - incubated by chamois Sebright beginning at 21-05-94

Marekís disease - Henís chickens hatched 11-06-94 - incubated in incubator beginning at 21-05-94

Marekís disease - Henís chickens hatched 13-06-94 - incubated by white Silky 1 beginning at 23-05-94

Marekís disease - Henís chickens hatched 13-06-94 - incubated by white Silky 2 beginning at 23-05-94

Marekís disease - Peacockís chickens hatched 14-06-94 - incubated by turkey hen beginning at 19-05-94

Marekís disease - Henís chickens hatched 16-06-94 - incubated by turkey hen of Braekels beginning at 26-05-94

Marekís disease - Henís chickens hatched 18-06-94 - incubated in incubator beginning at 28-05-94

20-6-94

Only Newcastleís disease 3rd dose -Henís chickens hatched between 07-03-94 and 19-03-94

Infectious bronchitis 1st dose - Henís chickens hatched between 30-05-94 and 07-06-94

28-6-94

Infectious laringotracheitis - Henís chickens hatched between 02-05-94 and 15-05-94

Pox and encephalomyelitis - Henís chickens hatched between 02-05-94 and 15-05-94

Newcastleís and Gumboroís diseases 1st dose - Henís chickens hatched between 30-05-94 and 07-06-94

27-6-94

Newcastleís and Gumboroís diseases 2nd dose - Henís chickens hatched between 19-05-94 and 28-05-94

Infectious bronchitis 1st dose - Henís chickens hatched between 11-06-94 and 18-06-94

Infectious bronchitis 1st dose - Peacockís chickens hatched between  11-06-94 and 18-06-94

 

Hatches under broody hen

Year 1992

eggs

incubated

hatched

hatch %

hen

560

398

71,1

turkey

20

14

70,0

duck

63

38

60,3

muscovy duck

28

25

89,3

goose

98

38

38,8

mallard duck

0

0

 

quail

333

140

42,0

Guinea fowl

0

0

 

pheasant

10

0

 

partridge

0

0

 

peacock

0

0

 

   

Hatches in incubator

Year 1992

eggs

incubated

hatched

hatch %

hen

789

395

50,1

turkey

76

7

9,2

duck

100

31

31,0

muscovy duck

0

0

 

goose

61

11

18,0

mallard duck

0

0

 

quail

422

113

26,8

Guinea fowl

0

0

 

pheasant

0

0

 

partridge

0

0

 

peacock

0

0

 

 

Hardware and Software requirements

dBase IV version 1.5 may run on IBM PC, XT and AT, PS/2 models 30, 50, 60 and 80, Compaq Deskpro 286 and 386 or other computers 100% compatible.

dBase IV runs under PC-DOS from version 2.1 to version 3.3x, PC-DOS and MS-DOS version 4.01, MS-DOS version 5.0, DR-DOS version 5.0 and Compaq DOS version 3.3x.

To dBase IV installing you need an hard disk with at least 4 MB free.

You need also 640K of RAM and at least 450K available during the program running.

dBase IV version 1.5 is a relational database of Borland International Inc. (Copyright © 1988,1992),