Medico greco, discepolo di Ippocrate, attivo probabilmente nella prima metŕ del IV secolo aC, al quale le fonti antiche attribuiscono quattro trattati del Corpus Hippocraticum:
Sulla natura umana (Émile
Littré VI, pp. 32-86),
Sul feto di otto mesi (Émile
Littré VII, pp. 436-460),
Sulla natura del fanciullo (Émile
Littré VII, pp. 486-542),
Sulle affezioni (Émile
Littré VI, pp. 208-270).
Piuttosto sicura sembra solo la prima attribuzione, attestata giŕ da Aristotele (HA 512b 12-513a 7).


H. Grensemann, Polybos (8), in RE Suppl. XIV (1974), pp. 428-435; J. Jouanna, Le médicin Polybe est-il l’auteur de plusieurs ouvrages de la collection hippocratique?, «REG» LXXXII (1969), pp. 552-562; Id., Hippocrate. La nature de l’homme, Berlin, Teubner, 1975 (CMG I 1, 3), pp. 55-61; V. Nutton, Polybos (6), in DNP X (2001), p. 49.



In the spurious oration attributed to Thessalus (ap. Hippocr. Opera, vol. iii. p. 843), and also in some Latin works, he is called Polybius, but this is probably a mistake.

Πόλυβος, one of the pupils of Hippocrates, who was also his son-in-law, and lived in the island of Cos, in the fourth century b. c. Nothing is known of the events of his life, except that, with his brothers-in-law,  Thessalus  and Dracon, he was one of the founders of the ancient medical sect of the dogmatici); that he was sent abroad by Hippocrates, with his fellow-pupils, during the time of the plague, to assist different cities with his medical skill (Thessal. Orat. p. 843), and that he afterwards remained in his native country (Galen, Comment, in Hippocr. "De Nat. Hom" i. praef. vol. xv. p. 12). According to Galen (l.c.), he followed implicitly the opinions and mode of practice of Hippocrates; but the strict accuracy of this assertion has been doubted. He has been supposed, both by ancient and modern critics, to be the author of several treatises in the Hippocratic collection. Choulant (Handb. der Bücherkunde für die Aeltere Medicin) specifies the following:
Περὶ Φύσιος Ἀνθρώπου, De Natura Hominis;
2. Περὶ Γονς, De Genitura ;
3. Περὶ Φύσιος Παιδίου, De Natura Pueri;
Περὶ Διαίτης Ὑγιεινῆς, De Salubri Victus Ratione ;
5. Περὶ Παθῶν, De Affectionibus ; and
Περὶ τῶν Ἐντὸς Παθῶν, De Internis Affectionibus.
Clemens Alexandrinus (Strom. vi. p. 290) attributes to him the treatise, Περὶ Ὀκταμήνου, De Octimestri Partu ; and Plutarch (De Philosoph. Plac. v. 18) quotes him as the author of that Περὶ Ἑπταμήνου, De Septimestri Partu. Of these, however, M. [Émile Maximilien Paul] Littré (Oeuvres d'Hippocr. vol. i. p. 345, &c.) considers that only the first, and perhaps the fourth, are to be attributed to Polybus [Hippocrates, p. 487], although Galen says that the treatise De Natura Hominis was the work of Hippocrates himself (Comment, in Hippocr. "De Nat. Hom." i. praef. vol. xv. pp. 11, 12). Polybus is several times mentioned by Galen, chiefly in connection with different works in the Hippocratic Collection (De Foet. Format. c. 1. vol. iv. p. 653, De Hippocr. et Plat. Decr. vi. 3, vol. v. p. 529, De Diffic. Respir. iii. 1,13, vol. vii. pp. 891, 960, Comment, in Hippocr. "De Nat. Horn." ii. 19, vol. xv. p. 164, Comment, in Hippocr. "De Sal. Vict. Rat" praef. and c. 33, vol. xv. pp. 175, 223, Comment, in Hippocr. " De Humor" i. praef. vol. xvi. p. 3, Comment, in Hippocr. "Aphor" vi. 1, vol. xviii. pt. i. p. 8): his name also occurs in Celsus (De Med. v. 20. § 2, 26. § 23, vi. 7. § 3, pp. 91, 100, 127), Caelius Aurelianus (De Morb. Acuit. iii. 9, 15, pp, 218, 227), and Pliny (H. N. xxxi. in fine). A collection of the treatises attributed to Polybus was published in a Latin translation, 1544, 4to. Basil., per J. Oporinum ; and in Italian by P. Lauro, 1545, 4to. Venice. A Latin translation of the treatise De Salubri Victus Ratione, was published in a separate form by J. Placotomus (Bretschneider), 1561,12mo. Antwerp, and is to be found appended to the Regimen Sanitatis Salernitanum (in numerous editions), and to three or four other works.

William Smith
Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology - 1870